All of the above. Stick with a basic synthesis of information. Since this sort of conclusion is so basic, it is vital that you aim to synthesize the information rather than merely summarizing it. Instead of merely repeating things you already said, rephrase your thesis and supporting points in a way that ties them all together.
By doing so, you make your research paper seem like a "complete thought" rather than a collection of random and vaguely related ideas. Bring things full circle. There are several ways to do this. Ask a question in your introduction. In your conclusion, restate the question and provide a direct answer. Write an anecdote or story in your introduction but do not share the ending.
Instead, write the conclusion to the anecdote in the conclusion of your paper. For example, if you wanted to get more creative and put a more humanistic spin on a paper on tuberculosis you might start your introduction with a story about a person with the disease, and refer to that story in your conclusion. For example, you could say something like this before you re-state your thesis in your conclusion: The images may or may not appear at other points throughout the research paper.
If your research paper presented multiple sides of an issue, use your conclusion to state a logical opinion formed by your evidence. Include enough information about your topic to back the statement up but do not get too carried away with excess detail. If your research did not provide you with a clear-cut answer to a question posed in your thesis, do not be afraid to indicate as much.
Restate your initial hypothesis and indicate whether you still believe it or if the research you performed has begun swaying your opinion. Indicate that an answer may still exist and that further research could shed more light on the topic at hand. Instead of handing the reader the conclusion, you are asking the reader to form his or her own conclusion. This may not be appropriate for all types of research papers. Most research papers, such as one on effective treatment for diseases, will have the information to make the case for a particular argument already in the paper.
A good example of a paper that might ask a question of the reader in the ending is one about a social issue, such as poverty or government policy. Ask a question that will directly get at the heart or purpose of the paper. This question is often the same question, or some version of it, that you may have started out with when you began your research. Make sure that the question can be answered by the evidence presented in your paper. If desired, you can briefly summarize the answer after stating the question.
You could also leave the question hanging for the reader to answer, though. If you are including a call to action in your conclusion, you could provide your reader with a recommendation on how to proceed with further research. Even without a call to action, you can still make a recommendation to your reader. For instance, if you are writing about a topic like third-world poverty, you can various ways for the reader to assist in the problem without necessarily calling for more research.
Another example would be, in a paper about treatment for drug resistant tuberculosis, you could suggest making a donation to the World Health Organization or research foundations which are developing new treatments for the disease.
Part 2 Quiz True or False: Avoid saying "in conclusion" or similar sayings. This includes "in summary" or "in closing. Moreover, using a phrase like "in conclusion" to begin your conclusion is a little too straight-forward and tends to lead to a weak conclusion. A strong conclusion can stand on its own without being labelled as such.
Do not wait until the conclusion to state your thesis. While it may be tempting to save your thesis in order to create a dramatic end to your paper, doing so will create a paper that seems less cohesive and more unorganized. Always state the main argument or thesis in the introduction. A research paper is an analytical discussion of an academic topic, not a mystery novel.
A good, effective research paper will allow your reader to follow your main argument from start to finish. This is why it is best practice to start your paper with an introduction that states your main argument, and to end the paper with a conclusion that re-states your thesis for re-iteration. Leave out new information. All significant information should be introduced in the body of the paper. Supporting evidence expands the topic of your paper by making it appear more detailed.
A conclusion should narrow the topic to a more general point. A conclusion should only summarize what you have already stated in the body of your paper. You may make a suggestion for further research or a call to action, but you should not bring in any new evidence or facts in the conclusion. Avoid changing the tone of the paper. The tone of your research paper should be consistent the entire way through. Most often, a shift in tone occurs when a research paper with an academic tone is give an emotional or sentimental conclusion.
Even if the topic of the paper is of personal significance for you, you should not indicate as much in your paper. If you want to give your paper a more humanistic slant, you could start and end your paper with a story or anecdote that would give your topic more personal meaning to the reader. This tone should be consistent throughout the paper, however. Do not make statements that downplay your authority or discoveries.
Apologetic statements include phrases like "I may not be an expert" or "This is only my opinion. Avoid any statements in the first-person. First person is generally considered to be very informal and does not fit with the formal tone of a research paper. Part 3 Quiz How can you maintain a consistent tone throughout your paper? Write only in the first person. Use anecdotes throughout the text. Keep your arguments strictly academic. Use the same verbs throughout your paper. Intros should be about sentences long, you want to pose and start your point but don't go into scrutinizing detail.
Conclusions should be around , you are basically wrapping everything up so you want it short and sweet. Not Helpful 4 Helpful State your viewpoint on the main idea of your research paper. For example, if your paper is about endangered species and why they are becoming endangered and you feel it's due to neglect by world citizens, then that's your hypothesis: Not Helpful 9 Helpful How do I write a conclusion if my thesis is to prove or disprove something?
You should acknowledge the other side of the argument and discuss how your side is the "correct" one in the dispute; think of it like an "honorable mention. Present your own ideas in your own words instead of simply copying from other writers. If you have time and opportunity, show it to your instructor to revise.
Otherwise, you may estimate it yourself. A well-prepared thesis means well-shaped ideas. It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author. More helpful hints about Writing a Research Paper. An informal outline working outline is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas.
It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to form. In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and subtopics. The letters and numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order. All points of a research paper outline must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral.
The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. Make the first outline tentative. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper?
State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic. BODY — This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion.
Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct.
Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place.
You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids.
Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand.
Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the question. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page.
Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e. Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline. Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.
Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e. Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.
Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed. That is the theory, at least.
But how do you go about doing it all? This brief guide provides some answers. Teaching Yourself From the outset, keep in mind one important point: Writing a research paper is in part about learning how to teach yourself. Long after you leave college, you will continue learning about the world and its vast complexities.
There is no better way to hone the skills of life-long learning than by writing individual research papers. The process forces you to ask good questions, find the sources to answer them, present your answers to an audience, and defend your answers against detractors.
Those are skills that you will use in any profession you might eventually pursue. Thou shalt do some background reading, think hard, and speak with the professor in order to identify a topic. At the beginning of a course, you will probably not know enough about the major scholarly topics that are of most importance in the field, the topics that are most well-covered in the secondary literature or the topics that have already had the life beaten out of them by successive generations of writers.
You should begin by doing some general reading in the field. If nothing else, begin with the Encyclopaedia Britannica , a wonderful but sadly neglected resource.
Read a few books or articles on topics you find of interest. Follow up the suggested reading on the course syllabus or the footnotes or bibliographies of the texts you are reading for the course.
After that, speak with the professor about some of your general ideas and the possible research directions you are thinking about pursuing. And you should do all this as early in the course as possible. Thou shalt have a clear research question.
Why did a particular political or social event turn out as it did and not some other way? Why does a particular pattern exist in social life? Why does a specific aspect of politics work as it does? How has a social or political phenomenon changed from one period to another? The question can be general or particular. Why have some countries been more successful in the transition from Communism than others?
Each journal specializes in a specific area of research. Hence its readership varies. A proper choice of journal can make a larger impact of your research. Get to know the focus and readership of the journal that you are considering. - general vs. specialized area journal Select 2 or 3 journals in the chosen area with relatively high impact factors.
Research paper is quite a challenging task to complete but following a clear and proper structure will help you avoid all possible mistakes and will teach you how to gather and analyze information in a simple and fast way.
The Five Commandments of Writing Research Papers To write first-rate research papers, follow the following simple rules—well, simple to repeat, but too often ignored by most undergraduates. 1. Thou shalt do some background reading, think hard, and speak with the professor in order to identify a topic. As with writing a regular academic paper, research proposals are generally organized the same way throughout most social science disciplines. Proposals vary between ten and twenty-five pages in length.
Research tips (including how to do research, how to write and present a paper, how to design a poster, how to review, etc), by Sylvia Miksch Notes on presenting theses, edited by Aaron Sloman, gives useful guidelines and ideas for PhD students writing their thesis. Sep 03, · Expert Reviewed. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper. Four Parts: Sample Conclusions Writing a Basic Conclusion Making Your Conclusion as Effective as Possible Avoiding Common Pitfalls Community Q&A The conclusion of a research paper needs to summarize the content and purpose of the paper without 80%(41).