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An abridged biography of Malcolm X.

❶While in the Nation of Islam, Malcolm spoke out against US imperialism based on world history and religion.

“By any means necessary.”

As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in children. Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore.

Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for another reason. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for him.

For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and found the response to be overwhelmingly positive. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for all races.

After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. They shot him 15 times at close range. After the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves.

The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. How did this happen? What role did racism play? Furthermore discuss how Malcolm was discouraged by a racist teacher in school. How typical were the experiences of Malcolm Little? I was a true hustler - uneducated, unskilled at anything honorable, and I considered myself nervy and cunning enough to live by my wits, exploiting any prey that presented itself I would risk just about anything.

Right now, in every big city ghetto, tens of thousands of yesterdays and today's school drop outs are keeping body and soul together by some form of hustling in the same way I did And they inevitably move into more and more, worse and worse, illegality and immorality. Full time hustlers never can relax to appraise what they are doing and where they are bound. As is the case in any jungle, the hustler's -every waking hour is lived with both the practical and the subconscious knowledge that if he ever relaxes, if he ever slows down, the other hungry, restless foxes, ferrets, wolves, and vultures out there with him won't hesitate to make him their prey.

Most of us know people who survive in an underground economy, sometimes through illegal means. Fast money means drugs and guns, including stealing and robbery.

Then comes either the cemetery or prison. Why do people use drugs? What can be done to stop drugs? In this context discuss Malcolm's description of the hustler. Elijah Muhammad spoke of how in this wilderness of North America, for centuries the "blue-eyed devil white man" had brainwashed the "so-called Negro.

He told us, and showed us, how his teachings of the true knowledge of ourselves would lift up the Black man from the bottom of the white man's society and place the Black man back where he had begun, at the top of civilization.

Religion and nationalism are major aspects of our radical Black tradition What role did each play in the transformation of Malcolm X? Discuss each of the points Malcolm makes in relation to the teaching of Elijah Muhammad. OMAWOLE - Omawole a name Malcolm received in Nigeria was an anti-imperialist, panafricanist who expanded his religion and nationalism toward world brotherhood.

It was a big order-the organization that I was creating in my mind, one which would help to challenge the American Black man to gain his human rights, and to cure his mental, spiritual, economic, and political sicknesses. But if you ever intend to do anything worthwhile, you have to start with a worthwhile plan. Substantially, as I saw it, the organization I hoped to build would differ from the Nation of Islam in that it would embrace all faiths of Black men, and it would carry into practice what the Nation of Islam had only preached One of the major troubles that I was having in building the organization that I wanted-an all-Black organization whose ultimate objective was to help create a society in which there could exist honest white-Black brotherhood - was that my earlier public image, my so-called "Black Muslim" image, kept blocking me.

I was trying to gradually reshape that image. I was trying to turn a corner, into a new regard by the public, especially Negroes; I was no less angry than I had been, but at the same time the true brotherhood I had seen in the Holy World had influenced me to recognize that anger can blind human vision.

Autobiography, pp , In the last year of his life Malcolm created two organizations: What are the differences between them?

Also, one of the greatest points of controversy about Malcolm is the extent to which his life changed in the last 2 or 3 years. Discuss what changes took place in Malcolm's point of view? Merlin House, The text consists of 4 speeches given by Malcolm X while he was a minister in the Nation of Islam during and , edited by Benjamin Goodman. One of the greatest strengths of our radical Black tradition is its relentless opposition to Eurocentrism.

The Eurocentric viewpoint is that Greece and Rome laid the foundation for the eternal white European dominance of the world. Elijah Muhammad continued the radical Black tradition of exposing this lie and in its place articulated an Afrocentric philosophy of history that links the fall of countries to the extent that their wealth was based on exploitation, 'the sin of slavery. The Honorable Elijah Muhammad teaches us that as it was the evil sin of slavery that caused the downfall and destruction of ancient Egypt and Babylon, and of ancient Greece, as well as ancient Rome, so it was the evil sin of colonialism slavery, nineteenth-century European style that caused the collapse of the white nations in present-day Europe as world powers.

Unbiased scholars and unbiased observers agree that the wealth and power of white Europe has rapidly declined during the nineteen-year period between World War II and today. So we of this present generation are also witnessing how the enslavement of millions of Black people in this country is now bringing white America to her hour of judgement, to her downfall as a respected nation.

And even those Americans who are blinded by childlike patriotism can see that it is only a matter of time before white America too will be utterly destroyed by her own sins, and all traces of her former glory will be removed from this planet forever.

While in the Nation of Islam, Malcolm spoke out against US imperialism based on world history and religion. One aspect of this was limited to a Black perspective, while in another sense it suggests a universal understanding of history. How and why does Malcolm explain the rise and fall of countries?

What "sins" are being committed against Black people in the USA? Why will the USA fall? This is a classic collection of material organized in 15 sections, edited by George Breitman. Malcolm X was the greatest Black nationalist leader and he also articulated his views as a universal statement for progressive people of all nationalities. Malcolm was a leader who ran down revolutionary views that became popular themes for everyone in struggle. His speeches are full of analyses and comment, and his impact was to unify progressive forces, first and foremost in the Black liberation movement, then in the broader anti-imperialist movement as well.

He clarified the role of religion in struggle and laid the basis for Black liberation theology. There is nothing in our book, the Koran, that teaches us to suffer peacefully. Our religion teaches us to be intelligent. Be peaceful, be courteous, obey the law, respect everyone; but if someone puts his hand on you, send him to the cemetery. That's a good religion. If fact, that's that old time religion. That's the one that Ma and Pa used to talk about: And nobody resents that kind of religion being taught but a wolf who intends to make you his meal No, preserve your life, it's the best thing you've got.

And if you've got to give it up, let it be even-steven. Malcolm X Speaks, pp November, I believe that there will ultimately be a clash between the oppressed and those that do the oppressing.

I believe that there will be a clash between those who want freedom, justice and equality for everyone and those who want to continue the systems of exploitation It is incorrect to dassif' the revolt of the Negro as simply a racial conflict of Black against white, or as a purely American problem.

Rather we are today seeing a global rebellion of the oppressed against the oppressor the exploited against the exploiter. Malcolm X Speaks, pp January, During the 's the term "grass roots" gained in popularity in opposition to "elite" civil rights leaders. This speech was delivered all over the country in late and laid the basis for the Black liberation movement that coalesced with the war cry of "Black Power" in America has a very serious problem.

Not only does America have a very serious problem, but our people have a very serious problem. America's problem is us. Once you face this as a fact, then you can start plotting a course that will make you appear intelligent, instead of unintelligent We have a common enemy. We have this in common: But once we all realize that we have a common enemy, then we unite-on the basis of what we have in common. And what we have foremost in common is that enemy-the white man.

He's an enemy to all of us. I know some of you all think that some of them aren't enemies. In this speech Malcolm discusses common problems and Black nationalism.

In this way he lays the basis for Black unity in an overall way. However, he also discusses the differences between the house slaves and the field slaves, a difference that still exists today.

Both issues need to be discussed. The issue also involves leadership: Malcolm X made a great contribution in helping to clarify the relationship between reform and revolution, between solving problems through electoral action versus solving problems through retaliatory violence. He stressed that Blacks were kept down through the force of racist violence and murder. But Malcolm X did more than this, because he attempted to lay down a program of Black unity, what he called Black nationalism.

The issue he raised is the relationship of Black nationalism to reform and to revolution. This is an ideological issue of great importance. The political philosophy of Black nationalism means that the Black man should control the politics and the politicians in his own community The economic philosophy of Black nationalism is pure and simple. It only means that we should control the economy of our community The social philosophy of Black nationalism only means that we have to get together and remove the evils, the vices, alcoholism, drug addiction, and other evils that are destroying the moral fiber of our community.

We our selves have to lift the level of our community, the standard of our community to a higher level, make our own society beautiful so that we will be satisfied We've got to change our own minds about each other.

We have to see each other with new eyes. We have to see each other as brothers and sisters. We have to come together with warmth so we can develop unity and harmony that's necessary to get this problem solved ourselves.. If it's necessary to form a Black nationalist army, we'll form a Black nationalist army. It'11 be the ballot or the bullet. It'11 be liberty or it'll be death. Malcolm X Speaks, pp 38, 39, 40, 41 April, Over the last 25 years there has been a great practical struggle, most dealing with electoral struggle especially with the election of Black mayors, and campaign on the state and national levels.

The electoral experience needs to be summed up, and discussed in terms of who benefits and whose life has remained the same or gotten worse. Furthermore, we have to discuss how to carry out Malcolm's program at the grass roots level. You tell me what kind of country this is. Why should we do the dirtiest jobs for the lowest pay?

Why should we pay the most money for the worst kind of food and the most money for the worst kind of place to live in? I'm telling you we do it because we live in one of the rottenest countries that has ever existed on this earth. It's the system that is rotten.

It's a system of exploitation, a political and economic system of exploitation, of outright humiliation, degradation, discrimination-all of the negative things that you can run into And the things that they practice against you and me are worse than some of the things that they practiced in Germany against the Jews And you run around here getting ready to get drafted and go someplace and defend it. Someone needs to crack you up 'side your head. And you know that if you once did it, you can do it again; you automatically get the incentive, the inspiration and the energy necessary to duplicate what our forefathers formerly did.

But by keeping us completely cut off from our past, it is easy for the man who has power over us to make us willing to stay at this level because we feel that we were always at this level, a low level.

That's why I say it is so important for you and me to spend time today learning something about the past so that we can better understand the present, analyze it, and then do something about it. What kind of economic system is Malcolm X talking about?

Was Malcolm a Black capitalist or a Black socialist? We have always had to fight for progress, so the main discussion should focus on our best example of struggle in each area. Pathfinder Press, A collection of 4 speeches and 2 interviews, edited by Bruce Perry. There are over speeches given by Malcolm X that have yet to be published. The Last Speeches is a great publishing event, especially for the two speeches given in Malcolm's last month.

One thing I noticed in both the Middle East and Africa, in every county that was progressive, the women were progressive. In every country that was underdeveloped and backward, it was to the same degree that the women were undeveloped, or underdeveloped, and backward.

There is a worldwide revolution going on The American power structure? The French power structure? The English power structure? Then what power structure? An international Western power structure. An international power structure consisting of American interests, French interests, English interests, Belgian interests, European interests. These countries that formerly colonized the dark man formed into a giant international combine. A structure, a house that has ruled the world up until now And in recent times there has been a revolution taking place in Asia and Africa, whacking away at the strength or at the foundation of the power structure.

We don't believe in fighting a battle We don't believe that we can win a battle where the ground rules are laid down by those who exploit us. We don 't believe that we can carry on a struggle trying to win the affection of those who for so long have oppressed and exploited us. Discuss the "international power structure" today.

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Malcolm X Research Papers examine the life of this man, and his distrust and rage toward white Americans. He became known as " the angriest black man in America.".

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Watch video · profiles Malcolm X, African American leader and prominent figure in the Nation of Islam, who articulated concepts of black pride in the s.

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Scholarly research on Malcolm X, his life and activities. A serious look at his words, written and spoken, a webliography, extensive chronology, bibliography and study guide. As the nation’s most visible proponent of Black Nationalism, Malcolm X’s challenge to the multiracial, nonviolent approach of Martin Luther King, Jr., helped set the tone for the ideological and tactical conflicts that took place within the black freedom struggle of the s. Given Malcolm X’s abrasive criticism of King and his advocacy of racial separatism, it is not surprising that.

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Malcolm Little who is famously recognized as Malcolm X was born into a world of hatred on May 19, in Omaha Nebraska. His father was a freelance Baptist Preacher who incorporated the teaching of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Gravey. Malcolm X Malcolm Little was born on May 19, ; he was the son of Louise and Earl Little of Omaha, Nebraska. He was a very good student. He was a very good student. Before dropping out in the 8th grade, and was even voted class president.