Careful and systematic analysis of the discussions provide clues and insights as to how a product, service, or opportunity is perceived. A focus group can be defined as a carefully planned discussion designed to obtain perceptions on a defined area of interest in a permissive, nonthreatening environment.
It is conducted with approximately seven to twelve people by a skilled interviewer. The discussion is relaxed, comfortable, and often enjoyable for participants as they share their ideas and perceptions. Group members influence each other by responding to ideas and comments in the discussion. Focus group interviews typically have four characteristics: Other types of group processes used in human services delphic, nominal, planning, therapeutic, sensitivity, or advisory may have one or more of these features, but not in the same combination as those of focus group interviews.
Cognitive and spatial mapping information provides a spatial map of: All types of recreation activities and travel involve some level of environmental cognition because people must identify and locate recreation destinations and attractions.
Cognitive mapping allows recreation resource managers the opportunity to identify where users and visitors perceive the best recreation areas are located. It is important to understand user perceptions in order to manage intensive use areas in terms of maintenance, supervision, budgeting, policy development and planning.
Cognitive maps grid the research site into zones. The zones identify existing geographic, climatic, landscape, marine resources, and recreation sites. Researchers collect data at recreation areas beach, campground, marina, trailhead, etc. During the data collection process, random sites, days, times, and respondents every nth should be chosen to increase the reliability and generalizability of the data.
Observational research is used for studying nonverbal behaviors gestures, activities, social groupings, etc. Specify the question s of interest reason for doing the study. Are the observational categories clearly described? What is being observed and why? Design the measurement instruments checklists, categories, coding systems, etc.
Is the study designed so that it will be 'Valid i. Train observers in the use of the instruments and how to conduct observational research. Do a pilot test to a test the actual observation procedure and b check the reliability of the categories of observation using at least two independent observers. Revise the procedure and instruments in light of the pilot test results. If substantial changes are made to the instrument, run another pilot test to make sure changes will work under the field conditions.
Collect, compile, and analyze the data and interpret results. Casual observation is normally done like unstructured interviews. Data mining is commonly used in both qualitative and quantitative research. Secondary data provides data which provides a framework for the research project, development of research question s , and validation of study findings. Bureau of Labor Statistics - Extensive information on such things as employment, unemployment, types of employment, income, etc.
State Employment Departments - Number employed by industry, projected levels of employment growth, available jobs skills and skill shortages Federal Land Management - National Parks, historic sites, scenic areas, forests by acres, budget and visitation rates. Number of alcohol and drug abuse counselors, number of family counselors. Number and cases of child abuse, spouse abuse, desertions, child adoptions rate.
Newspapers - Scanning local newspapers is an excellent means to become better acquainted with a community and its principal actors as well as the issues that have been of greatest local concern Content Analysis.
It is used to quantitatively studying mass media. The technique uses secondary data and is considered unobtrusive research. The first step is to select the media to be studied and the research topic. Then develop a classification system to record the information. The techniques can use trained judges or a computer program can be used to sort the data to increase the reliability of the process.
Content analysis is a tedious process due to the requirement that each data source be analyzed along a number of dimensions. It may also be inductive identifies themes and patterns or deductive quantifies frequencies of data.
The results are descriptive, but will also indicate trends or issues of interest. Meta-analysis combines the results of studies being reviewed. It utilizes statistical techniques to estimate the strength of a given set of findings across many different studies. This allows the creation of a context from which future research can emerge and determine the reliability of a finding by examining results from many different studies.
Researchers analyze the methods used in previous studies, and collectively quantify the findings of the studies. Meta-analysis findings form a basis for establishing new theories, models and concepts. Identification of the research problem. Conduct of a literature review of identified studies to determine inclusion or exclusion. A careful reading and evaluation to identify and code important study characteristics. Calculation of effect size.
Effect size is the mean of the experimental group minus the mean of the control group, divided by the standard deviation of the control group. The notion is to calculate the effect size across a number of studies to determine the relevance of the test, treatment, or method.
Reporting of the findings and conclusions. Historical research is also referred to as analytical research. Common methodological characteristics include a research topic that addresses past events, review of primary and secondary data, techniques of criticism for historical searches and evaluation of the information, and synthesis and explanation of findings.
Historical studies attempt to provide information and understanding of past historical, legal, and policy events. They provide a systematic approach to the process of historical research.
Define the problem, asking pertinent questions such as: Is the historical method appropriate? Are pertinent data available? Will the findings be significant in the leisure services field? Develop the research hypothesis if necessary and research objectives to provide a framework for the conduct of the research. Research questions focus on events who, what, when, where , how an event occurred descriptive , and why the event happened interpretive.
This contrasts with quantitative studies, in which the researcher is testing hypotheses and trying to determine the significance between scores for experimental and control groups or the relationships between variable x and variable y. Collect the data, which consists of taking copious notes and organizing the data.
The researcher should code topics and subtopics in order to arrange and file the data. Concepts are clarified by de- scribing the essential and core concepts beginning from the early developmental stages. Clarification allows other researchers to explore the topic in other fashions. Editing or compilation of documents, to preserve documents in chronological order to explain events.
For ex- ample, an edition of Butler's park standards, the National Recreation and Park Association's first minutes, or letters from early pioneers in the field preserves the documents for future researchers.
Descriptive narration tells the story from beginning to end in chronological order, utilizing limited generalizations and synthesized facts.
Interpretive analysis relates one event to another event. The event is studied and described within a broader con- text to add meaning and credibility to the data.
For example, an examination of the development of a local jurisdiction's ability to dedicate land for parks may be related to the urbanization and loss of open space in our communities.
Comparative analysis examines similarities and differences in events during different time periods-for example, the budget-cutting priorities and procedures of the Proposition 13 era of the early s in parks and recreation as compared to the budget-cutting priorities and procedures of today. Theoretical and philosophical analysis utilizes historical parallels, past trends, and sequences of events to suggest the past, present, and future of the topic being researched.
Findings would be used to develop a theory or philosophy of leisure. For example, an analysis of public recreation agency goals and objectives of previous eras can be used to describe the future in the context of social, political, economic, technological, and cultural changes in society. Utilizing external and internal criticism, the re- search should evaluate the data.
Reporting of the findings, which includes a statement of the problem, review of source material, assumptions, research questions and methods used to obtain findings, the interpretations and conclusions, and a thorough bibliographic referencing system. The multimethod approach encourages collecting, analyzing and integrating data from several sources and the use of a variety of different types of research methods.
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Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results. Data collection methods for impact evaluation vary along a continuum.
Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes. Data collection methods can be divided into two categories: secondary methods of data collection and primary methods of data.
whereas qualitative work (small q) refers to open-ended data collection methods such as indepth interviews embedded in structured research (Kidder and Fine, ). DATA COLLECTION Research methodology A brief and succinct account on what the techniques for collecting data are, how to apply them, where to Magister “Civilisation: find data of any type, and the way to keep records for language and Cultural an optimal management of cost, time and effort.
It is also worth remembering at this stage that all methods of data collection can supply quantitative data (numbers and statistics) or qualitative data (usually words or text). You have, however, selected from the two main traditions of approaching a research topic – quantitative and qualitative. In collecting the data, the researcher must decide: Which data to collect How to collect the data Who will collect the data When to collect the data 4. The selection of data collection method should be based on the following: The identified hypothesis or research problem The research design The information gathered about the variables.