The article incorporates tables, descriptive statistics that helps with the understanding of the data, it also provides five tables of illustrations. Table one is about the demographic characteristics of the targets of the workplace bullies, it displays the characteristics of social workers ranging by age, gender, and demographics Whitaker, T. Table two is about organizational settings and roles of target, it displayed supervisors, colleagues, subordinates, and clients were all identified as bullies.
In addition, being treated with disrespect and having work de-valued as the hardest aspects of being bullied at the workplace. Table four was the summary characteristics of bullies, the study showed characteristics were either passive or assertive by the coping scale. The passive behavior ranging score of 24 and assertive score of The median and mean scores were The last table, which was five was the classification of Reponses to the coping scale as passive or assertive coded in the same direction the table explained coping strategies and responses Whitaker, T.
In the article several questions were asked in a questionnaire. The more passive the response, the lower the value assigned to it, the more assertive the response, the higher the value was assigned to it. The data supported the research problem of workplace bullying. It was noteworthy and explained that three out of five social workers were recipients of rude, unpleasant, and unfavorable workplace environmental interactions.
However, the article did not provide inferential statistics. The data was collected through questionnaire and based on actual results to determine the statistics Whitaker, T. In conclusion, this article explored the issues of workplace bullying of social workers and the coping responses, it included a number of concerned issues for the social working profession.
If the results shown in a figure have been tested with an inferential test, it is appropriate to summarize the outcome of the test in the graph so that your reader can quickly grasp the significance of the findings. It is imperative that you include information in your Materials and Methods, or in the figure legend, to explain how to interpret whatever system of coding you use. Several common methods for summarizing statistical outcomes are shown below.
Comparison of the means of 2 or more groups is usually depicted in a bar graph of the means and associated error bars. For two groups , the larger mean may have asterisks centered over the error bar to indicate the relative level of the p-value.
In all cases, the p-value should be reported as well in the figure legend. The asterisk may also be used with tabular results as shown below. Note how the author has used a footnote to define the p-values that correspond to the number of asterisks. Courtesy of Shelley Ball. For three or more groups there are two systems typically used: The system you use depends on how complicated it is to summarize the result. The first example below shows a comparison of three means.
The line spanning two adjacent bars indicates that they are not significantly different based on a multiple comparisons test , and because the line does not include the pH 2 mean, it indicates that the pH 2 mean is significantly different from both the pH 5. Note that information about how to interpret the coding system line or letters is included in the figure legend.
When lines cannot easily be drawn to summarize the result, the most common alternative is to use capital letters placed over the error bars.
Letters shared in common between or among the groups would indicate no significant difference. Summarizing Correlation and Regression Analyses. For relationship data X,Y plots on which a correlation or regression analysis has been performed, it is customary to report the salient test statistics e. If a regression is done, the best-fit line should be plotted and the equation of the line also provided in the body of the graph.
I get asked this question fairly often so I thought I would do a few posts on it. The most common problem is that a student who is new to statistics has no idea where to even start. These examples use SAS but you could use any package you like. My recommendation to students beginning to learn.
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! 1! Paper HOW Statistical Analysis – The First Steps Jennifer L. Waller Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia ABSTRACT For both statisticians and non-statisticians, knowing what data look like before more. Free statistical analysis papers, essays, and research papers.
Statistical analysis encompasses the whole range of techniques used in quantitative studies, as all such studies are concerned with the examination of discrete data, with describing this data. Statistical Analysis in the Article The article incorporates tables, descriptive statistics that helps with the understanding of the data, it also provides five tables of illustrations. Table one is about the demographic characteristics of the targets of the workplace bullies, it displays the characteristics of social workers ranging by age.