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Essay on HIV and AIDS

❶In these areas most AIDS cases have been attributed to homosexual or bisexual activity and intravenous drug abuse.

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Essay, term paper, research paper: Biology
INTRODUCTION
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The disease also has significant economic impacts. The disease has also become subject to many controversies involving religion. Many individuals develop an influenza like illness or a mononucleosis-like illness weeks post exposure while others have no significant symptoms.

Some people also develop opportunistic infections at this stage. Gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea may occur, as may neurological symptoms of peripheral neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome.

The duration of the symptoms varies, but is usually one or two weeks. HIV is transmitted by three main routes: There is no risk of acquiring HIV if exposed to feces, nasal secretions, saliva, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, or vomit unless these are contaminated with blood. There is some evidence to suggest that female protection may provide an equivalent level of protection. By contrast, use of the spermicide nonoxynol-9 may increase the risk of transmission due to its tendency to cause vaginal and rectal irritation.

Researchers found a strong connection between HIV infection and rectal trauma, enemas before sex, and physical signs of disruption of the tissue lining the rectum. Homosexual women tend to have a very low incidence of venereal disease in general, an AIDS is no exception. Female-to-female transmission is highly uncommon, however it has been reported in one case and suggested in another. In the reported case, traumatic sex practices apparently resulted in transmission of HIV from a woman who had acquired the virus through IV drug abuse to her non- drug-using sexual partner.

Heterosexual contact is the only transmission category in which women outnumber men with AIDS. Heterosexual contacts accounts for 29 percent of AIDS cases among women in the United States, but for only 2 percent of cases among men.

Estimates of the risk of HIV transmission in unprotected intercourse with a person known to be infected with HIV are 1 in for a single sexual encounter and 2 in 3 for sexual encounters. The use of a condom reduces these odds to 1 in 5, for a single encounter and to 1 in 11 for encounters. Basically meaning that personal interactions typical in family relationships, such as kissing on the cheek, kissing on the lips, and hugging, have not resulted in transmission of the virus.

In these areas most AIDS cases have been attributed to homosexual or bisexual activity and intravenous drug abuse.

The second pattern is seen in areas of central, eastern, and southern Africa and in some Caribbean countries. Unlike pattern one most AIDS cases in these areas occur among heterosexuals, and the male-to-female ratio approaches 1 to 1.

The third pattern of transmission occurs in regions of Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and most of the Pacific. It is believed that HIV was introduced to these areas in the early to mids. People infected with the virus may be completely asymptomtic; they may have mildly debiliating symptoms; or they may have life-threatening conditions caused by progressive destruction of the immune system, the brain, or both. One of the first signs of HIV-1 infection in some patients is an acute fluelike disease.

The condition lasts from a few days to several weeks and is associated with fever, sweats, exhaustion, loss of appetite, nausea, headaches, soar throat, diarrhea, swollen glands, and a rash on the torso. Some of the symptoms of the acute illness may result from HIV-1 invasion of the central nervous system. In some cases the clinical findings have correlated with the presence of HIV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Symptoms disappear along with the rash and other sings of acute viral disease. When the blood test for HIV-1 antibodies become available, researchers demonstrated the lymphadenopathy was a frequent consequence of infection with the virus. Scientist do not know what causes the wasting syndrome, but some experts believe that it might result from the abnormal regulation of proteins called monokines.

About two-thirds of AIDS patients have a degenerative brain disease called subacute encephalitis. HIV infection also have been associated with degeneration of the spinal cord and abnormalities of the peripheral nervous system.

Symptoms include progressive loss of coordination and weakness. Involvement of the peripheral nervous system may result in shooting pains in the limbs or in numbness and partial paralysis. HIV destroys the body's defense capabilities, opening itself to whatever disease-producing agents are present in the environment.

The diagnosis of secondary infection in AIDS patients and others with HIV infection is complicated because some of the standard diagnostic tests may not work. Often such tests detect the immune response to a disease-producing microorganism rather than the organism itself. The most common life threatening opportunistic infection in AIDS patients is Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia, a parasitic infection previously seen almost exclusively in cancer and transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs.

The first signs of disorder are moderate to severe difficulty in breathing, dry cough, and fever. Infection Infection with HIV is a 2-step process consisting of binding and fusion. The larger protein, glycoprotein, is responsible for the binding activity. Its target is a receptor molecule called CD4, found on the surface of some human cells. The tight complex formed by glycoprotein, and CD4 receptor brings the viral envelope very close to membrane of the target cell.

This allows the smaller envelope protein, glycoprotein41, to initiate a fusion reaction. The envelope of the virus actually fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the viral core direct access to the inner mechanisms of the human cell. Once the viral core is inside the cell, the viral RNA genome is reverse transcribed into DNA and then integrated into the host genome cells.

Cells infected with HIV carry envelope proteins lodged in their membrane. These cell-bound proteins can bind to CD4 receptors on uninfected cell.

Fusion of the two cell membranes allow partially formed viral particles to move from the infected cell to the uninfected cell. Thus, HIV theocratically could spread through the body without leaving host cells. There have been suggestions the T4 cells are more vulnerable to HIV-induced cell death than other cells because they have a higher concerntration of CD4 receptors.

There is speculation that cell death occurs when viral envelope proteins lodged in the membrane of an infected cell bind to CD4 receptors embedded in the same membrane. After the first flu-like symptoms, some people with HIV stay healthy for ten years or longer. However, during this time, HIV is damaging your immune system. You also will not get infected if your sexual organs are not exposed to another person infected with the disease. Safe activities include kissing, erotic massage, and mutual masturbation.

Having sex in a monogamous relationship is safe in protecting yourself if both of you are uninfected HIV-negative ; you both have sex only with your partner; and neither one of you is exposed to HIV through drug use or other activities. If you are infected with the virus, you can receive drugs that will only slow the virus from destroying your immune system. However, there is no way of ridding the virus from your body. If you have been exposed to the virus, there is a drug you can take that will reduce the risk of you getting the disease if taken close enough to the time of exposure.

You must take several medications daily for 30 days. In conclusion, you must be cautious in this new world. You can only protect yourself by using proper protection and being cautious of whom your sexual partners are. As there is no cure for the disease, you have to be careful because if you are infected you are stuck with the disease for life. Hypothesis Obesity is one of the factors influencing increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Nowadays, obesity is a big problem among mankind especially in well-developed countries. The statistics show that in this countries e. USA, UK majority of people faces cardiovascular problems. Is it rather due to unhealthy lifestyle or inappropriate diet? This question is difficult to answer, but probably the mixture of these The aim of the investigation is to examine the dependence between the blood pressure and the hour.

The role of the blood is to supply organism with oxygen and nutrients. To reach every part of the body, blood is distributed by artery tissues. Because of the large size of human body, blood is pumped from the heart to arteries under certain pressure enabling in filling This increases blood flow through muscle tissues which allows an increase in metabolism also muscle temperature. Also it allows haemoglobin to release oxygen more frequently to the muscles which require it.

Increases range of motion around a joint and there are hormonal changes.

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Free HIV papers, essays, and research papers. Mandatory HIV Testing is Wrong - TABLE OF CONTENTS S No Topic Page No 1 Introduction 3 2 Mandatory HIV testing among Pregnant women 4 3 Pros of Mandatory HIV testing for pregnant women 4 Arguments against Mandatory testing for pregnant women 7 5 Arguments against Mandatory Premarital HIV Testing 6 Proponents of Mandatory Premarital HIV.

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Research Paper on Epidemiology of HIV: Epidemiology can be said to be a key factor of science to public health. HIV is an epidemic and a concern to the public. HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus It is one of a group of viruses known as retroviruses. After getting into the body, the virus kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. After getting into the body, the virus kills or damages cells of the body's immune system.

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AIDS Research Paper essaysWhat is AIDS and how is it spread? Around the world, AIDS has been a top killer for many people throughout the 20th century and is spread numerous ways. Scientist have been hard at work for years to find a cure for AIDS, but only have been able to find ways to treat it. Research within librarian-selected research topics on AIDS and HIV from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and more.